Text of Music Theory Illustrated on Ukulele for Beginners

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Music Theory Illustrated
Ukulele:
Beginner

Table of Contents:
Chapter 1 – What to Expect from this Text: 2
Chapter 2 – The Back Story: 3
Chapter 3 – Audible Range 5
Chapter 4 – Notes: 6
Chapter 5 – Color Assignment: 7
Chapter 6 – Stickers: 8
Chapter 7 – Chromatic Scale: 8
Chapter 8 – Intervals: 9
Chapter 9 – Major Chords: 9
Chapter 10 – Inversions: 10
Chapter 11 – Your Ukulele Chord: 11
Chapter 12 – The Circle of Fifths: 11
Chapter 13 – Your Ukulele I-IV-V: 12
Chapter 14 – Chord Progressions: 12
Chapter 15 – Arpeggio Chords: 14
Chapter 16 – Rhythms: 14
Chapter 17 – Tempo: 15
Chapter 18 – Playing by Ear: 15
Chapter 19 – Apps: 16
Chapter 20 – Congratulations 17

Chapter 1 – What to Expect from this Text:

My goal is to help beginners to play their instrument and to help more experienced musicians to understand the structure of music theory so that they can remember a song by its music theory structure.

If your goal is to play the Ukulele, learning the basics of music theory, not reading and writing music notation, will get you further, faster and you will have more fun.

This text is a companion to your illustrated Music Wormhole products. You do not have to read this text to use your Music Wormhole products but it may help you to understand them and give you additional insights into Music Theory.

Music Theory Illustrated is presented as if I were having a conversation with you. I will attempt to communicate the most important information to you in an easy to understand manner.

I use the term “Music Wormhole” as a generic term for any of our colorful, illustrated products which have a cut out window in the front and a circular dial at the back which can be turned. The name Music Wormhole was chosen because these products are a “short cut to the musical universe”.

Your illustrated Music Wormhole products increase in complexity as you progress through the series of products: The products in order of complexity are shown in the table below:

Product Name: Level:
Ukulele Chord Beginner
Ukulele I IV V Beginner
Ukulele Major Scale Advanced
Ukulele Wormhole Advanced

Wherever possible I will assist your learning process by referring you to the illustrations on your Music Wormhole products. I will also tell you the most commonly used Notes, Chords, Keys, Scales, Chord Progressions and methods of Improvising in order to fast track your development.

The first letter of important words are often Capitalized to assist you to learn new vocabulary. The musical word “flat” has been abbreviated with “b” and the musical word “sharp” has been abbreviated with the “#”symbol.

If you are a beginner, I highly recommend that you start with the beginner products and work you way through them until this information is familiar to you. Music Theory Illustrated for Beginners makes it easy for a beginner to get started with understanding the structure of music and it will lay a foundation for you to become a better musician.

Music Theory Illustrated: Advanced demonstrates the Major Scale in all the Keys of Western Music and show musicians how to improvise within a Key by making up your own Chord Progressions, as well as substituting Chords, Transposing from one Key to another and much more.

Many people who pick up a Ukulele, do not know what to do with the instrument because they cannot remember a “song” that they learnt by heart many years ago much like you may not be able to remember how to say “I love you” in a foreign language which you learnt by heart many years ago.

Understanding music from a perspective of Music Theory is important because it gives you a “road map”. Music Theory allows you to understand the structure of music and this makes learning the language of music much easier. If you know what you are supposed to do, it is much easier for you to actually do it.

If you do not have the time or interest to learn Music Theory then simply play the Notes/Chords shown in the cut out windows of your Music Wormhole products. You can trust me that these are the Notes/Chords that sound good together.

The information presented here will support any other music tuition you are receiving. I encourage you to use a private teacher, attend music classes and seek out music education. Playing music will enrich your life and give you an inner joy.

You have taken a significant step towards playing your instrument well by purchasing Music Wormhole’s products. Please take the time to play the suggested Chord Progressions that are displayed at the end of this text. These Chord Progressions are an excellent starting point for your regular practice.

Chapter 2 – The Back Story:

My first encounter with making music came when I was approximately ten years old. My school was putting on a musical play and looking for students to participate. I had been going to church with my Mother, where we would sing, and my Father would take me to international rugby matches where the National Anthems of the respective teams would be sung before the game. When I got the chance to sing in the school musical play, I gave it my all.

The play was Noah’s Ark. I got the part of one of Noah’s sons. This was a fun period of my life. I can remember walking home from school singing the songs and feeling happy. The play was a big success and there were many repeat performances. I am sure that kids all over the world enjoy this sort of experience.

Music was not a realistic career option for me growing up. My high school did not have a music program. At college I studied accountancy because it would lead to a job. Working as an accountant and a computer programmer gave me a start in my adult life but the twists and turns of life were as challenging for me as they are for most people.

Many years later, in my early forties, I bought a multi-residential property that required a large amount of fix-up work. This type of work was new to me and I was doing it full time. There was not enough money in my budget to employ carpenters, plumbers, electricians, painters, landscapers or property managers, so I bought books and learnt how to do these jobs myself. This was a difficult period of my life and there were many long months of lonely work.

One weekend I was walking my dog on the beach and I saw a group of people singing in a circle. I immediately thought to myself, “I want to be part of that”. I went up to the group and saw that they had songbooks and I was told that anyone could take part. Soon I had bought a songbook and a music stand and I was attending regularly. Only then did I notice that most people were playing a small “Guitar” called a Ukulele. I was only really interested in the singing but I got a $20 Ukulele so that I could look like I was part of the group.

For the first two years I refused to learn anything about the Ukulele because all I wanted to do was sing. I was all enthusiasm and no skill. To make things worse, I would sing really loud. Perhaps it was my tinnitus (ringing in my ears) or perhaps it was because I was using a skill-saw and other loud hand tools during the week, but every Saturday morning I was religiously at the beach Ukulele meeting to sing out loud and hold a Ukulele.

Slowly I took a bigger interest in the Ukulele because I had respect for people who were good players. After about five years, the amount of work I was doing on the property became less. This created an opportunity for me to do something new with my time.

For the first time in my life, I allowed my heart to direct my actions instead of my head. I enrolled in multiple classes at the local community college music department, taking the same classes that a “music major” student would take because I figured it was the right thing to do if I wanted to learn about music.

Many college music departments center their education on reading / writing musical notation on the Treble Clef and Bass Clef Staff. It is important that the language of music can be written down and it is important for members of an Orchestra to read music. However, almost all the famous household musicians such as Michael Jackson, Madonna, Mick Jagger, the Beatles, Jimmie Hendricks and almost every other famous musician could not read or write music when they were rising stars. Clearly reading and writing music notation is not required to be a good musician. Understanding the structure of music is very helpful to every musician.

I would come home from community college everyday and ask myself the question, “How does what I learnt today help me to play my musical instrument”. Music is circular in its structure and the best way for me to answer this question was to construct a circular diagram. This is how Music Wormhole’s products were born.

Chapter 3 – Audible Range

The lowest frequency that humans can hear is approximately 20Hz (one Hertz means one vibration per second) and the highest frequency (or pitch or tone) that humans can hear is approximately 20,000Hz. An example of a low sound is the rumble of a jet aircraft passing overhead and an example of a high sound is a referees whistle or a child crying. Notice how the low sounds tend to travel a long distances and give the feeling of a big, solid object while high sounds cut through other noises and grab you attention. This is why bass notes tend to be consistent and melodies are in the high notes.

This large range of audible frequencies was given some organizational structure by the famous Greek philosopher Pythagoras who lived in the years 571-495 B.C.. Pythagoras used a monochord (single string) and observed that notes where harmonious when the length of the string was halved.

You will notice that on all stringed instruments, the twelve fret is the mid point of the string (from the nut to the bridge), and the notes on the first twelve frets repeat themselves on the next twelve frets, but one octave higher in pitch.

Pythagoras’s observations were the beginning of notes being organized into octaves. There are approximately 10 octaves in the human’s audible range, however only the middle four of these octaves are commonly used in Western Music (C3-C6).

Chapter 4 – Notes:

Within each octave there are many frequencies but only 12 of them are of importance to Western Music. This is why musical instruments must be tuned, so that the instruments can play specific frequencies.

These 12 frequencies are called Notes (or tones) and they are a “semi-tone” apart.

The names of the 12 Notes of Western Music are:

A; A#/Bb; B; C; C#/Db; D; D#/Db; E; F; F#/Gb; G; G#/Ab

( “#” is pronounced “sharp” and “b” is pronounced “flat”). Note names that are underlined are Notes that can be called by their “#” name or their “b” name.
The 12 Notes of Western Music repeat in each octave, doubling in frequencies as you move up the audible range.

Not all notes are created equally. The note of “C” is the most commonly used note and in particular the note called “Middle C” is the single most important note. Middle C is also known as C4 and it resonated at 261.6 Hertz. On the Piano, it is the white key, immediately to the left of the group of two black keys, in the middle of the keyboard and on the Guitar it is the note at the third fret of the 5th string. Middle C (C4) cannot be played on the Ukulele but the next C up in pitch, C5, can be found at the fifth fret of the 4th string or by playing the 3rd string open (playing a string open means that you do not press down on any fret).

The Key of C is the easiest Keys to play on the Piano, Guitar and the Ukulele. The Key of C is the most commonly played Key of Western Music and it the correct starting point for all new musicians. On the Piano, the Key of C uses only the white keys and the Key of C is the only Key that does not use any sharp or flat Root Notes (Root Note means lowest sounding note and will be discussed more later).

The fact that there are 12 Notes in each Octave of Western Music is probably influenced by early mankind’s use of a numbering system based on 12 units, which itself was probably influenced by the fact that humans have three joints on four fingers which make counting to 12 easy. Whatever the reason, Western Music has 12 notes in each octave just like the face of a clock shows 12 hours, there are 12 inches in a foot and there are 12 months in a year.

A Piano sounds different from a Guitar or a Ukulele even when all these instruments are playing the same note. Each instrument is producing the same number of vibrations per second but the shape of the sound waves produced by each instrument is different. This is called the instrument’s Timbre and it refers to tone character or the shape of the sound wave but not the number of sound waves per second.

The table below shows the specific frequencies of each of the 12 Notes of Western Music over a range of multiple octaves:

Note/Octave C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8
C 32.7 65.4 130.8 261.6 523.3 1046.5 2093 4186
C# / Db 34.6 69.3 138.6 277.2 554.4 1108.7 2217 4434
D 36.7 73.4 146.8 293.7 587.3 1174.6 2349 4698
D# / Eb 38.9 77.8 155.6 311.1 622.3 1244.5 2489 4978
E 41.2 82.4 164.8 329.6 659.3 1318.5 2637 5274
F 43.7 87.3 174.6 349.2 698.5 1396.9 2793 5587
F# / Gb 46.2 92.5 185.0 370.0 740.0 1480.0 2959 5919
G 49.0 98.0 196.0 392.0 784.0 1568.0 3136 6272
G# / Ab 51.9 103.8 207.7 415.3 830.6 1661.2 3322 6644
A 55 110.0 220.0 440.0 880.0 1760.0 3520 7040
A # / Bb 58.3 116.5 233.1 466.2 932.3 1864.6 3729 7458
B 61.7 123.5 246.9 493.9 987.8 1975.0 3951 7902

Turn to the back of your Ukulele Chord and look at the circular dial. In order for this diagram to be more recognizable, think of the face of a clock, with the twelve-position at the top of the circle and the six-position at the bottom.

The diagram allocates each clock number with a specific color and note name. For example, the color of the note “C” is always yellow and the color of the note “E” is always blue. The color assigned to each note is consistent throughout Music Wormholes products.

Chapter 5 – Color Assignment:

The three primary colors: Yellow, Blue and Red are assigned to the notes C, E and G#/Ab. These three notes are as far apart as possible on a 12 point circle. There are three notes between each of these primary colors and the middle one of these three notes is allocated one of the secondary color, Green, Violet and Orange. Each secondary color can be created by mixing together the two primary colors on each side of it.

The tertiary colors are created by mixing a primary color with a secondary color. These colors complete the color wheel. I have used descriptive names for the tertiary colors; Yell-G, Blue-G, Blue-V, Red-V, Red-Or, and Yell-Or (the first half of the name is the primary color and the second half of the name is the secondary color).

Chapter 6 – Stickers:

Note stickers for your Ukulele have been included with your illustrated Music Wormholes. Please place these stickers on your instrument to assist your learning experience.

Review the instrument diagram on the front of your Ukulele Chord. Notice that the colored stickers match the colored notes on the instrument diagram.

Chapter 7 – Chromatic Scale:

When the 12 Notes of Western Music are played (or displayed) sequential, it is called the Chromatic Scale.

The Chromatic Scale is a phrase that should bring to your mind all twelve notes of an octave being played in sequential order.

There are two important variables that should come to your mind when you hear the phrase “Chromatic Scale”, they are, the order of the Chromatic Scale can be ascending or descending (you can go clockwise around the circle or counter clockwise) and you can start the Chromatic Scale on any note and stop 12 notes later.

The diagram on the back of your Ukulele Chord, which is similar to the face of a clock, is a good visual representation of the Chromatic Scale. By allocating a color to each of the twelve notes of Western Music, it becomes easier to understand many important musical concepts, for example, one rotation around the color wheel is equal to playing all 12 Notes of one octave. As you move clockwise around the circle (from Yellow to Green to Blue to Red to Orange and back to Yellow), the pitch of the notes gets higher. Similarly, as your move from left to right on your Piano, the pitches get higher and as you move down the fret board of a stringed instrument, the pitches get higher.

When a Scale is played in music, the first note of the scale is normally repeated that the end of the Scale. In the case of the Chromatic Scale which has 12 Notes, a thirteenth note would be played at the end of the Scale which is the same note name as the first note of the Scale but one octave higher in pitch, if the Scales was played ascending and one octave lower in pitch if the Scale was played descending.

Chapter 8 – Intervals:

An Interval is the distance between two notes of the Chromatic Scale.

View the table below where we have used the Note of C as our starting point. In this table, the Note of C is our lowest sounding note (or our Root Note) and we will choose another Note above C to be our second Note, thereby creating an Interval above our Root Note. If we choose the Note “E” to be our second Note, which is four semi-tones above C, this Interval is called a Major Third.

The table below shows the Interval Names and their Alternative Names:

Chromatic #: Note: Interval Name: Alternative Name:
12 C Octave Octave
11 B Major 7th 7th
10 A# / Bb Minor 7th Flat 7th
9 A Major 6th 6
8 G# / Ab Minor 6th Flat 6th/ #5th
7 G Perfect 5th 5
6 F# / Gb Minor 5th Flat 5th
5 F Perfect 4th 4th
4 E Major 3rd 3
3 D# / Eb Minor 3rd Flat 3rd
2 D Major 2nd Whole Tone or Whole Step
1 C# / Db Minor 2nd Semi-tone or Half Step
12 C Root Root

Chapter 9 – Major Chords:

A single frequency played on a musical instrument is called a “note”. Two or more notes played together are called a “Chord”. It is most common for a chord to have three notes. A chord with three notes is called a Triad.

Chords have different Qualities depending on the Interval between the notes that make up the Chord.

Music Theory Illustrated for Beginners will focus on the Chord Quality of the Major Triad. Major Triads are the most commonly played Chords in Western Music.

A Major Chord can have any note in the Chromatic Scale as its first note (Root Note) or lowest sounding note. To construct a Major Chord, the second note of this triad must be an interval of a Major Third above the Root Note. The third note of a Major Chord must be an Interval of a Minor Third above the second note.

Look to the front of your Ukulele Chord. Turn the dial at the back so that the Yellow C Major Chord is displayed in the cut out window.

Using the fingers suggested directly below the chord diagram, play the C Major Chord three times, rest briefly and play the C Major Chord another three times. Play this four beat pattern over and over again.

Chapter 10 – Inversions:

The subject of Inversions primarily applies to the Piano on which instrument inverting Chords is common. Musicians using other instruments should have some knowledge of Inverted Chords. In Music Theory Illustrated for Guitar, all the Chords are shown in Root Position. Guitar players are particular about playing Chords in the correct inversion. In Music Theory Illustrated for Ukulele, which shows the conventional fingerings on the Ukulele for each Chord, you will notice that these chords are often not played in Root Position.

A Chord played in Root Position has the note that is the name of the Chord as the lowest sounding note within the Chord. For example, the C Major Chord is made up of the notes C, E and G. When the C Major Chord is played with the C note as the lowest sounding note, the E note as the next lowest sounding note and the G note as the highest sounding note, the “C” Chord is in Root position.

The C Major Chord played in “First Inversion” has the C note flipped to the top of the “note stack” and the C note becomes the highest sounding note in the Chord. The order of the note soundings becomes E, G, C.

The C Major Chord played in “Second Inversion” has the C note and the E note flipped to the top of the “note stack” and the C note becomes the middle sounding note in the Chord. The order of the notes sounding becomes G, C, E.

Chapter 11 – Your Ukulele Chord:

Your Ukulele Chord shows the 12 Major Chords arranged in the order of the Chromatic Scale.

Work your way around the Chromatic Scale playing all the Major Chords. You will notice that some of the Chords are more difficult to finger than others. Fortunately there are some Chords that are much more commonly used than other Chords so learning how to finger some of the most difficult Chords is not necessary for a beginner.

The C, F, G, A and D Major Chords are the most commonly used Major Chords in Western Music. Start by learning these 5 chords.

Take some time to become familiar with these Chords and their fingering. Suggested fingering is shown immediately below each instrument diagram. The spelling of the Chord (the notes that make up the Chord) is shown immediately above each instrument diagram.

Arranging the Chords in the order of the Chromatic scale is useful because the Chromatic Scale is easy for beginners to understand. It is sequential. One Root Note after the next Root Note with the Chord Quality of a Major Chord built on top of each Root Note.

Showing the Major Chords in the order of the Chromatic Scale can be improved for a playing musician by showing the Chords that are often played together, next to each other for easy reference. This is achieved by the Circle of Fifths.

Chapter 12 – The Circle of Fifths:

The Circle of Fifths is derived by starting with the C note and moving up the Chromatic Scale by an Interval of a Perfect Fifth (or seven semi-tones) to the G note. From the G note, move up the Chromatic Scale by an Interval of another Perfect Fifth to the D note. Do this 12 times and you will have the sequence of root notes for the Circle of Fifths. The root notes are in the following order:

C, G, D, A, E, B, Gb, Db, Ab, Eb, Bb, F back to C again.

Build a Major Chord quality on top of each Root note and you have the 12 Major Chords arranged in the order of the Circle of Fifths.

Every Chord on the Circle of Fifths can be viewed as the First Degree of a Major Scale (shown as “I”) with it’s Fourth degree (shown as “IV”) to it’s right and it’s Fifth degree (shown as “V”) to it’s left. Western Music always uses Roman numerals to represent Scale Degrees.

If you add a Perfect Fifth (seven half Steps) to a Perfect Fourth (five half steps) you have an Interval of an Octave (twelve half steps). Because of this, the Circle of Fifths is sometimes also called the Circle of Fourths.

Chapter 13 – Your Ukulele I-IV-V:

The cut out window on the front of your Ukulele I-IV-V shows the same information as the cut out window on the front of your Ukulele Chord except that the chords are ordered according to the Circle of Fifths.

Set your Ukulele I-IV-V so that the Yellow C Chord is in the middle of the cut out window. The F Chord is to the right of the C Chord and the G Chord is to the left of the C Chord.

These three Chords, the C, F & G Chords are the three most commonly played Chords in all of Western Music. These three chords are the three Major Chords in the Key of C. The Key of “C” is most commonly played Key in Western Music.

The next two most commonly played Keys are the Keys of G and D. The 3 Major Chords in the Key of G are G, C and D and the 3 Major Chords in the Key of D are D, G and A.

By learning to play the C, F, G, D and A Major Chords, you will have learned to play the I-IV-V Chords of the Keys of C, G and D. These are the five most commonly played Chords in the three most commonly played Keys.

The “C Major Chord” should be your starting point and playing these five Chords should be your first goal.

Chapter 14 – Chord Progressions:

A Chord Progression is simply a series of Chords played sequentially. Think of a Chord Progression as a conveyor belt that goes around and around or perhaps a series of conveyor belts.

A Chord Progression may include a REST, which is considered a SILENT BEAT. Silent beats are very important because they play a big part in providing structure to the music. (It is bad musical etiquette to play during a rest, it tells other people that you are not in time with the band or that you are trying to bring attention to yourself at the expense of the rest of the band and the integrity of the music that you are playing).

The most commonly used Chord Progression use in Western Music is the I-IV-V Chord Progress. Below a number of variations to the I-IV-V Chord Progression are shown grouped into measures of 4, 3 and 2 beats.

C C C C | F F F F | G G G G | C C C C

C C C R | F F F R | G G G R | C C C R R = REST

C F G C | C F G C | C F G C | C F G C

C F G R | C F G R | C F G R | C F G R R = REST

C C C | F F F | G G G | C C C

C F G | C F G | C F G | C F G

C C | F F | G G | C C

If the above Chord Progressions are expressed as Scale Degrees rather than Chord Names, they look as follows:

I I I I | IV IV IV IV | V V V V | I I I I

I I I R | IV IV IV R | V V V R | I I I R R = REST

I IV V I | I IV V I | I IV V I | I IV V I

I IV V R | I IV V R | I IV V R | I IV V R R = REST

I I I | IV IV IV | V V V | I I I

I IV V | I IV V | I IV V | I IV V

I I | IV IV | V V | I I

By representing the Chord Progression in Scale Degrees, the progression can be played in any Key. This is useful for musicians. Try playing the Chord Progressions shown above in the Keys of G and D.

Chapter 15 – Arpeggio Chords:

Normally all the notes of a chord are played that the same time. When strumming a stringed instrument, the notes are played so close together that we will consider them to be played that the same time.

Arpeggiating a chord is the musical term for playing the notes of a chord one at a time, so that each note can be heard separately.

Playing chords in an Arpeggio style is a technique that you can use to make you music sound more sophisticated. If you know the fingering to play the chord, you also know the fingering to play the chord Arpeggio style.

Chapter 16 – Rhythms:

Music is played in recurring patterns of accents that provide a beat to the music. To achieve this, musical Notes/Chords are grouped into Measures. Think of Measures as parenthesis that package Notes/Chords together. Within any piece of music or song, there are always the same number of beats in each measure.

There is no pause or Rest between measures.

It is common for musician to accentuate the volume of the first beat of each measure but there is no rest or pause between measures. All Rests will be specifically marked. In lead sheet music the word “Tacit” is used to designate a rest, or tell the player, “Don’t play here”.

Western Music is most commonly played (more than 80%) with 4 beats per measure, 3 beats per measure or 2 beats per measure. Other numbers of beats per measure (like 5, 6 or 7) are possible but less common.

The number of beats per measure can be used to give a rhythm to the music.

Think of Rhythm as the “click, clack” of a train going down a railroad track. Is your train going “Click, Clack” or “Click, Click, Clack” or “Click, Click, Click, Clack”?

Chapter 17 – Tempo:

Tempo refers to the speed at which the music is played and is normally specified as a specific the number of beats per minute.

It is helpful to equate new subjects to ones that you are familiar with. I like to equate Tempo to my heartbeat. A normal heart rate for a human is approximately 90 beats per minute and this is a medium pace for music. Folk music is often played at 90 beats per minute.

Rock and roll music and punk rock music is played fast, at 160 beat per minute or faster. Most people would be sweating and breathing hard at a heart rate of 160 beats per minute, for example, after running 20 minutes of “hills” on a treadmill in the gym. 200 beats per minute is approaching the maximum of the human heart rate and intelligible music.

Ballads and love songs are often played slowly at around 60 beats per minute with 40 beats per minute being very slow. 60 beats per minute is a good resting heart rate and 40 beats per minute is a very slow heart rate.

A beginner musician should play slowly!

It is better to play and practice slowly but correctly. Allow the speed of your playing to increase as your ability to play increases.

It can be difficult for a beginning musician to slow down. When I started playing the Ukulele, my strumming hand was like a dog’s paw scratching a bad itch, a blur of motion that was symptomatic of an enthusiastic novice.

Chapter 18 – Playing by Ear:

Music is mostly an audible experience and playing music should be done mostly by ear. This may seem to be a statement of the obvious but there are many musicians who play by “sight”. In other words, they look at the Chords on the Lead Sheet or the Notes on the Treble Clef Staff with an intensity that dominants their mental processes. The result is that they are not listening to the band or the music that they are playing.

You will be a much better musician if you can “Play with your Ears and not your Eyes”. To do this you should have some knowledge of Music Theory and the structure of the music you are playing. Then you will be able to hear the band and your part within the band and know what is coming next.
Chapter 19 – Apps:

Music Wormhole has produced several iPhone, iPod and iPad apps to assist you to improve your musicianship. Links to these Apps can be found at our website:

www.musicwormhole.com

You can find these apps on the Apple App Store with your Apple mobile devices, iPad, iPhone or iPod. (This is a different App Store to the one that you access when you use an Apple desktop device such as a Mac-book or iMac computer to access the App Store.) Enter the title Music Wormhole into the search field or entering one of the links below:

iPad only (Music Wormhole’s latest release with the most features):
Piano …… https://appsto.re/us/4YoG1.i
Guitar …… https://appsto.re/us/peoG1.i
Ukulele … https://appsto.re/us/cUoG1.i

iPhone, iPod, iPad Universal App (good to always have with you on your cell phone):
Piano …… …… https://appsto.re/us/AnuhO.i
Guitar …… …… https://appsto.re/us/I7K0K.i
Ukulele … …… https://appsto.re/us/5buhO.i


Chapter 20 – Congratulations

You are now in a position to play your instrument with some knowledge of Music Theory.

Practice playing the Chord progressions shown below in the Keys of C, G and D.

Start with a very slow tempo, like 40 beats per minute.

I I I I | IV IV IV IV | V V V V | I I I I

I I I R | IV IV IV R | V V V R | I I I R R = REST

I IV V I | I IV V I | I IV V I | I IV V I

I IV V R | I IV V R | I IV V R | I IV V R R = REST

I I I | IV IV IV | V V V | I I I

I IV V | I IV V | I IV V | I IV V

I I | IV IV | V V | I I

Congratulations, you have reached the end of Music Theory Illustrated for Beginners!